Human activities emit up to 100 times more CO2 each year, the main cause of climate change, than all volcanoes on the planet, according to hundreds of researchers specializing in carbon, geology or vulcanology.

In a series of studies published Tuesday in the journal Elements, a team of 500 scientists grouped within the Deep Carbon Observatory (COD) detail how carbon is stored, emitted and reabsorbed in natural processes or created by humans.

According to them, only 0.2% of terrestrial carbon (43 000 gigatonnes) is above the surface (oceans, land, atmosphere). The rest – more than 1.85 billion gigatonnes – is stored in the Earth’s crust, mantle and core.

The Deep Carbon Observatory (COD) is a global community of more than 1000 scientists on a ten-year quest to understand the quantities, movements, forms, and origins of carbon in Earth.